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Full text of "An exhibition of Chinese art of the XVIII century: April 20 to May 19, 1935, Worcester Art Museum."

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AN EXHIBITION OF 



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OF THE XVIII CENTURY 



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APRIL 20 TO MAY 19, 1935 
WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 



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FOREWORD 



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'n presenting to the public at this time an exhibition of the art 
of China of the Eighteenth Century, the Museum is drawing 
attention to a long neglected interest among the amateurs of 
Oriental culture. We have, in America, been so taken up with 
the inexhaustible beauties of the earlier dynasties that our 
Museums have seemed to turn their backs for a time on the more 
brittle and elegant qualities that were reflected in the brilliant 
courts of the Emperors K'ang Hsi, Yung Cheng, and Ch'ien 
Lung. During these years of the Ch'ing Dynasty, 1662-1795, the 
court style of Western Europe was to reach its apogee, and it is 
not surprising that there was a constant interchange of ideas 
between the two continents. 

For those who would have a better understanding of our own 
eighteenth century heritage with its implications of chinoiserie, 
this exhibition may serve as a liberal introduction. 

To Mr. Perry B. Cott, Associate Curator of the Museum, who 
has so ably organized this exhibition, the first of its kind to be 
held in this country for many years, and who has prepared this 
catalogue, the Museum wishes to express its deep gratitude as 
well as to the persons and institutions who by their co-operation 
have made this occasion possible. 

Francis Henry Taylor 
April 19, 1935 Director 



LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 

Art Institute of Chicago C. T. Loo 

A. W. Bahr Roland Moore Inc. 

Isabella Barclay Inc. Parish-Watson and Company 

Ralph M. Chait Pennsylvania Museum of Art 

Fogg Art Museum Ton-Ying and Company 

French and Company Inc. C. Edward Wells Inc. 

Yamanaka and Company 




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INTRODUCTION 

cJt is an interesting, if somewhat disconcerting fact that 
Western writers on the general subject of Chinese art, having 
arrived at the close of the culture of the Ming Dynasty, conclude 
that the artistic productions of the three succeeding centuries 
are to be summed up in a few pages of invidious comparisons 
with the art that preceded. Such an attitude toward a period 
of art that holds a place of considerable prominence in Chinese 
eyes may be attributed to our essentially archaeological approach 
in which frequently greater distance, in terms of time, predicates 
a more perfect artistic expression. 

The present exhibition has been brought together with the 
intention of showing, on a necessarily limited scale, the artistic 
life of a highly cultivated and subtle epoch. In its culture the 
eighteenth century in China bears close relationship with the 
same era in the West and specifically in the France of Louis 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth. The same spirit of pride in conquest 
and subsequent indulgence in the sweet fruits of leisure as 
recorded in the canvases of a LeBrun or a Fragonard has its 
counterpart in the history of the Manchus. Coming from 
Manchuria, these conquerors who brought to its end the reign 
of the Ming Dynasty gradually laid aside the implements of war 
and soon yielded to the refining graces of their subjects. Under 
K'ang Hsi, who reigned from 1662 until 1723, was inaugurated 
the style which was destined to culminate in the glorious achieve- 
ments of one of China's greatest rulers, Ch'ien Lung (1736- 
1795). 

The essential characteristics of Chinese art of this period may 
be defined as primarily decorative. A tendency towards an ex- 
quisite and often "precious" expression distinguishes the artistic 
output of the time from that of other epochs. This may explain 
the fact that painting on porcelain is considered to be the major 
art while painting on silk or paper, in comparison, takes a 
secondary place. 

The porcelains in the exhibition have been grouped chrono- 
logically and selected with a view to a fairly inclusive representa- 
tion of the better known types. The popular K'ang Hsi Blue 
and White and the five colored wares, classed as famille verte, 

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are shown in a number of examples. Famille verte is the name 
given by the French to the porcelain painted in transparent 
enamels with various shades of green predominating. Other 
colors are yellow, aubergine, a violet-blue, coral red, and black. 
This is the ware that is most commonly associated with the 
reign of K'ang Hsi. Of the monochromes of the period there are 
specimens of the rare apple green, ruby red or sang de boeuf and 
the highly prized peach bloom. The last has been described as a 
"pale red becoming pink in some parts, in others mottled with 
russet spots displayed on a background of light green celadon 
tint." Other glazes represented are the creamy-white blanc de 
Chine, turquoise blue, and mirror black. 

Under Yung Cheng (1723-1736) and Ch'ien Lung the brilliant 
greens of the polychrome decoration of the preceding period 
were supplanted by rose reds of crimson and pink tones. From 
these principal colors the style known as famille rose took its 
name. This class shows a great variety of decoration ranging 
from the boldly drawn designs of the earlier pieces to the 
exquisite painting on the small cups and dishes of the later years. 
Another popular type of ware is that called "soft paste porce- 
lain" which is to be distinguished from ordinary porcelain by its 
light weight and tendency to become crackled. 

That porcelain had an effect upon the painting of the eight- 
eenth century is borne out by examples of the delicately colored 
and intimately proportioned paintings in the exhibition. Many 
of these delightful pictures with their greyish-blue, pale green 
and faint apricot tints evoke the charms of a peaceful river 
valley, of trees and birds, of fruits and flowers. Others illustrate 
the art of portraiture with their depictions of royal favorites 
engaged in the pursuits of daily life. Several examples indicate 
the influence of Western art, in its emphasis upon a scientific 
perspective and modelling in light and shade, as transmitted by 
a group of Jesuit artists who set up a school of painting at the 
court of Ch'ien Lung. 

Further manifestations of the decorative genius of the artists 
and craftsmen of the period are to be found in the jades, textiles 
and furniture on exhibition. The carved jades show a variety of 
colors ranging from pure white through various greens to lav- 
ender and rose tints. The textiles include embroideries, rugs and 
the fine silk tapestries known by the name of K'o ssu. Lacquer 
and carved tables, screens and cabinets comprise the furniture. 

Perry B. Cott 

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CATALOGUE 



PAINTINGS 

1 Peaches and Branch by Kao Lee An XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

2 Birds and Chrysanthemums by Yoo Wen Long XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

3 Red Bird on a Lotus Branch by Yoo Wen Long XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

4 Two Birds by Li Suen XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

5 Crow on a Branch by Kwei Lee Ning XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

6 Fish by Li Suen XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

7 Fish by Li Suen XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

8 Water Lily by Miss Tong Wei Tsung XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

9 Landscape with Mountains and Horseman by Sze Chi Nien 

Lent by C. T. Loo XVIII Century 

10 Orchids in Bowls by Lee Tzan XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

11 Landscape with House and Trees by Wang Jah . XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

12 Mountain Landscape with Green Bamboos by Tsai Shi 

Lent by C. T. Loo XVIII Century 

13 Mountain Landscape by Loo Che Wei .... XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

14 An Empress Followed by a Lady-in-waiting by Ko Chien Lung 

Lent by C. T. Loo XVIII Century 

15 Seated Lady by Ko Chien Lung XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

16 Lady Enjoying Tea by Ko Chien Lung .... XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 



17 Two Ladies, one of whom plays a musical instrument, by Ko Chien 

Lung XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

18 Old Man Fishing by Kao Lung An XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

19 Tiger by Chow Sing XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

20 House and Tree by Tzi Ying XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

21 House and Tree by Tzi Ying XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

22 Bamboo by Han Yi San XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

23 The Goddess of Flowers by an unknown artist . XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

24 Morning Coiffure by an unknown artist .... XVIII Century 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

25 Portrait of a Princess by Yu Chih-ting .... circa 1672 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

26 Ladies Enjoying Polite Accomplishments in a Garden by 

Chiao Ping-cheng circa 1680 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago 

27 Bird and Grasshoppers by an unknown artist XVIII Century 

Lent by the Fogg Art Museum 

28 Land and Seascapes. Set of six paintings by Prince Yun Hsi, 

the twenty-first son of Emperor K'ang Hsi . XVIII Century 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

29 Portraits of Members of the Royal Household. Set of five 

paintings attributed to the school of the Jesuit priests, Castiglione 

and Attiret, in Peking XVIII Century 

Giuseppe Castiglione (1698-1768), an Italian painter, joined 
the Jesuit Order and together with a brother artist and mission- 
ary, Jean Louis Attiret (1702-1768), was sent to Peking in 1737. 
They shortly became court painters under the Emperor Ch'ien 
Lung and started a school of painting in which Western methods 
of perspective and modeling were taught. 

Lent by Isabella Barclay Inc. 

30 Buddhist Deities. Fragment of a painting in fresco XVIII Century 

Lent by the Fogg Art Museum 

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23 The Goddess of Flowers 
chinese painting, eighteenth century 
Lent bv C. T. Loo 



31 Warrior Figure. Fragment of a painting in fresco . XVIII Century 

Lent by the Fogg Art Museum 

32 Palace in a Landscape. Fragment of a painting in fresco 

Lent by the Fogg Art Museum XVIII Century 

PORCELAINS 

33 Pair of Ginger Jars. Blue and white porcelain, decorated with 

ascending and descending sprigs of white prunus blossoms re- 
served in a ground of deep and brilliant blue, variegated to 
represent the ice breaking up at the approach of spring. It was 
customary to send gifts of tea and ginger in these jars as New 
Year presents, the Chinese New Year falling three to seven weeks 

later than ours K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Parish -Watson and Company 

34 Pair of Club-shaped Vases. Porcelain painted in famille verte 

enamels with three large figures indulging in athletic and war- 
like exercises. The necks are decorated with rocky landscapes. 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. K'ang Hsi Period 

35 Ovoid Vase. Porcelain painted in famille verte enamels with a 

small figure shown pulling a royal barge, followed by attendants 
on horseback, along a river bank. A rocky landscape is suggested. 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. K'ang Hsi Period 

36 Ovoid Vase. Porcelain painted in famille verte enamels with a 

decoration of birds, rocks and flowers. K'ang Hsi Peric d 

Collection of the Worcester Art Museum 

37 Pair of Temple Jars with Covers. Porcelain painted in famille 

verte enamels. The decoration includes a garden scene with the 
God of Longevity and the sacred crane and deer of Long Life and 
Happiness K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

38 Pair of Plates. Porcelain painted in famille verte enamels with 

openwork borders. Two court ladies and a small boy are shown 

in a garden K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

39 Pair of Temple Jars with Covers. Porcelain painted in famille 

verte enamels K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Yamanaka and Company 

40 Pair of Square-shaped Jardinieres. Porcelain painted in fa- 

mille verte enamels K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Yamanaka and Company 

41 Double Flower Pot. Porcelain painted in famille verte enamels in 

medallions of flowers of the four seasons — the lotus, peony, 
chrysanthemum and plum — and two additional medallions, 
reserved in a lattice ground K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Parish-Watson and Company 



42 Baluster-shaped Vase. Porcelain painted in familleverte enamels 

with flowering hawthorn, rocks, plants and birds. K'ang Hsi Period 
Lent by Parish- Watson and Company 

43 Pair of Vases. Porcelain painted in famille verte enamels with 

scenes of a contest K'ang Hsi Period 

Collection of the Worcester Art Museum, Bequest of Frances A. 
Kinnicutt 

44 Square Black Enamel Stand. The decoration of birds, peonies 

and magnolia is painted in yellow, green and aubergine upon a 
black ground K'ang Hsi Period 

Collection of the Worcester Art Museum. Formerly J. P. Morgan 
Collection 

45 Shou Lao, the God of Longevity. Porcelain painted in brilliant 

enamels of various colors K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Parish -Watson and Company 

46 Tsou Kuan, the God of Good Luck. Porcelain painted in bril- 

liant enamels of various colors K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Parish-Watson and Company 

47 Gallipot-shaped Vase with Imperial Peacock-blue Glaze. 

Decorated with the "Nine Imperial Five-claw Dragons" and with 
incised waves on the shoulder and foot. K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

48 Long-necked Vase with Turquoise Blue Glaze. 

Decorated with incised dragons and clouds. . K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by C. T. Loo 

49 Pair of Hexagonal Jardinieres with Turquoise Blue Glaze. 

Lent by Ton-Ying and Company K'ang Hsi Period 

50 Bronze-shaped Incense Burner with Yellow Glaze. Deco- 

rated with a Kylin-head on each side. . Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) 

Lent by Ton-Ying and Company 

51 Pair of Bell-shaped Cups with Yellow Glaze. Ming Dynasty 

Lent by Ton-Ying and Company 

52 Amphora with Imperial Yellow Glaze. A companion piece to 

number 53 K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

53 Amphora with Imperial Green Glaze. The glaze is uncrackled. 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait K'ang Hsi Period 

54 Jardiniere with Apple Green Glaze. . . K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

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55 Club-shaped Vase with Sang de Boenf Glaze. K'ang Hsi Period 

Collection of the W orcester Art Museum. Formerly J. P. Morgan 
Collection 

56 Club-shaped Vase with Mirror Black Glaze. K'ang Hsi Period 

Collection of the Worcester Art Museum. Formerly J. P. Morgan 
Collection 

57 Pair of Writer's Water Cups. Peachbloom glaze w ith the green 

markings of the ripening peach K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Ton-\ ing and Company 

58 Writer's Water Cup. Peachbloom glaze. K'ang Hsi Period 

Collection of the W orcester Art Museum. Formerly J. P. Morgan 
Collection 

59 Amphora wdth Double-ringed Neck. Peachbloom glaze. 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait K'ang Hsi Period 

60 Kw an Yin. Blanc de Chine glaze. The Goddess of Mercy is seated 

amid rocks with a child acolyte standing at one side. 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. K'ang Hsi Period 

61 Kwan Yin. Blanc de Chine glaze. The Goddess is seated on a 

lotus pedestal, holds a budding branch and is accompanied by an 
acolyte K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

62 Bottle-shaped Vase with Rose du Barry Glaze. Yung Cheng Period 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

63 Bowl. Porcelain painted in famille rose enamels. The vellow 

cartouches enclose pink peony blossoms. . ^ ung Cheng Period 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

64 Butterfly Cup. Porcelain painted in famille rose enamels. The 

exterior is ornamented with floral garlands encircling four pairs of 
butterflies, symbolic of happiness, while the interior is decorated 
with a floral motif Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

65 Pilgrim Bottle. Porcelain painted in famille rose enamels. The 

circular medallions enclose a decoration of birds and flowers. 

Lent by C. T. Loo Ch'ien Lung Period 

66 Pair of Temple Jars with Covers. Porcelain painted in famille 

rose enamels, of the "'milles fleurs" type. Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

67 Bronze-shaped Beaker with Turquoise Blue Glaze. The dec- 

oration consists of plantain leaves in low relief. Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Ton -Yin g and Company 

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68 Cylindrical Vase. Blue and white porcelain of the "soft paste" 

type. A figure is shown approaching a rockery and a fir tree. 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. Ch'ien Lung Period 

69 Cylindrical Vase. Blue and white porcelain of the "soft paste" 

type. The sacred deer, symbolic of Long Life and Happiness, is 
shown in a rocky landscape beneath a large tree. Ch'ien Lung Period 
Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

70 Rooster. Porcelain painted in brilliant enamels of various colors. 

Lent by Parish-Watson and Company Ch'ien Lung Period 

71 Bowl. Porcelain painted in famille rose enamels. The exterior is 

coated with a rose du Barry graviatta ground ornamented with 
floral sprays. The circular medallions enclose vessels from the 
"Sacred Hundred Antiques." The interior is decorated with 

Buddhist symbols Tao Kuang Period (1821-1850) 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

72 Bowl. Porcelain painted in famille rose enamels and similar to 

number 71 Tao Kuang Period 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 



JADES 

73 Baluster-shaped Vase. Carved from a single block of translucent 

jade of a pale celadon color, this vase was fashioned after the 
model of the favorite bronze of the Emperor Ch'ien Lung, 
known as the "Wild Fowl and Fish Hu" of the Han Dynasty. 
The body is ornamented with a double frieze carved in relief 
with repeated renderings of a carp, a tortoise and a bird. Formerly 
in the Admiral Ullman Collection. . Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Ralph M. Chait 

74 Pair of Hat Stands. Imperial Green Jade. Of lotus flower shape 

and decorated with five dragon-like ornaments. Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Yamanaka and Company 

75 Covered Vase. Imperial White Jade. Carved with t'ao-t'ieh, 

animal heads and loose rings Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Yamanaka and Company 

76 Pair of Shallow Dishes. Imperial White Jade. . Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Yamanaka and Company 

77 Dish. Imperial White Jade. Carved with chrysanthemum petal 

designs Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Ton-Ying and Company 

78 Pair of Dishes. Imperial Spinach Jade. Carved with chrysanthe- 

mum blossoms in the form of petals Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Ton-Ying and Company 

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79 Pair of Jardinieres. Imperial Green Jade. . Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

80 Pair of Screens. Imperial Green Jade. These are from a jade 

lantern. On one is a representation of two sacred deer, shown 
against a rocky landscape, on a lattice-work open background. 
The curved part of the screen shows two dragons with the sacred 
fire ball between their heads. The companion piece is similar 
except that the two animals are foxes instead of deer. 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. Ch'ien Lung Period 

81 Bird, Lavender and Rose Jade. The bird, perched upon a rock, 

holds a branch of blossoming flowers. . Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. 

82 Brush-holder. Imperial White Jade. The carving depicts five of 

the Eight Immortals climbing to their celestial abode. Two deer, 
symbolic of Long Life and Happiness are also shown. 

Lent by Roland Moore Inc. Ch'ien Lung Period 



TEXTILES 

83 Set of Three Silk K'o Ssu Panels. The decoration of the center 

panel includes birds amid rocks and surrounded by flowers; the 
upper portion shows a white elephant flanked by some of the 
"Sacred Hundred Antiques." The side panels contain birds, 
flowers, rocks, butterflies, cranes, sea waves, the peach of lon- 
gevity and melons K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by C. Edward Wells Inc. 

84 Pair of Silk K'o Ssu Panels. The mountain, wave and thunder 

cloud design is surmounted by mountain, wave and cloud forms 

in the shape of two discs K'ang Hsi Period 

Lent by C. Edward Wells Inc. 

85 Imperial Khotan Rug. The floral pattern is woven in soft colors 

embellished with metal thread circa 1700 

Lent by French and Company 

86 Rug. The design, in various colors, is woven on an apricot ground. 

The central medallion encloses dragons and fu-dogs. XVIII Century 

Lent by French and Company 

87 Imperial Baby's Garment. The various designs, including the 

dragons in circular medallions, are embroidered in different 
colors on a heavy yellow silk. Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by A. W. Bahr 

88 English Tapestry. Woven by John Vanderbank. Indo-Chinese 

scenes are depicted on a tete-de-negre ground simulating a lacquer 
effect. The tapestry comes originally from Adlington Hall, 

Cheshire, England circa 1700 

Lent by French and Company 



FURNITURE 

89 Pair of Half-Moon Tables. Decorated with lacquer upon leather. 

Lent by C. T. Loo K'ang Hsi Period 

90 Pair of Cabinets. Decorated with lacquer upon wood. These 

cabinets were acquired from the Memorial Hall of Prince Chun 
(the father of Henry Pu yi of Manchukuo) in 1912. K"ang Hsi Period 
Lent by A. W . Bah- 

91 Bench. Teakwood with Tsuge marquetry. . . Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by 1 amanaka and Company 

92 Pair of High Tables. Teakwood with elaborate carving 

Lent by 1 amanaka and Company Ch'ien Lung Period 

93 Screen. Black lacquered coromandel wood in eight folds. A 

procession of figures before an emperor, seated in a pavillion. 
with warrior attendants, is depicted. In the upper and lower 
panels are representations of the flowers of the seasons and 

the "Sacred Hundred Antiques"" Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by French and Company 

94 Screen. Black lacquered coromandel wood in six folds. The repre- 

sentations include scenes of personages engaged in various avoca- 
tions both indoors and outdoors: the upper and lower panels con- 
tain branches with flowers and birds .... Ch'ien Lung Period 
Lent bv French and Company 

95 Miniature Carriage. Lacquer upon wood. The carriage is made 

up of a number of small boxes and compartments. Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent by A. W. Bahr 

96 Scholar's Desk with Furnishings. The contemporary acces- 

sories used by a scholar in his writing and painting include boxes 
of writing paper, brushes of various sizes, satinwood receptacle 
for brushes, ivory brush rest in the shape of mountains, ivory 
wrist rest, pair of jade scroll weights, pair of jade seals in Han 
Dynasty style, blocks of black and colored inks, crystal ink stone 
with vermilion for seal impressions, round lacquer box contain- 
ing special ink stone, palette of grey crackled pottery, cloisonne 
water jar and ladle and. in addition, a carved redwood box and 
a gourd cage for the pet cricket Ch'ien Lung Period 

Lent bv Pennsylvania Museum of Art. John S. Jenks Collection 



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